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This is what the discussion post was about:

Companies use different resources to learn more about the specific market segments they plan to target. Using the resources in this module, search for information using a zip code of your choice. Some options to consider include Beverly Hills 90210, Las Vegas 89101, Miami Beach 33139, or Manchester, NH, 03101. First, enter your chosen zip code to access information about that area. Review the information provided about the area. In your initial post, describe the attributes of the segments in your area and what strategies marketers should use if they were trying to reach someone in this area.

Further Discussion Material Context:

Consumer behavior is the study of how “individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and wants” (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 151). These are heavily influenced by cultural, social, and personal factors. Marketing is one part psychology, and to understand where, what, why, and how consumers buy, consumer motivations need to be understood.

The study of consumer behavior has two main categories: motivation and perception. Motivation is studying what it is that influences or persuades a consumer to buy. Many experts have studied motivation and how it impacts marketing decisions. The theories of two researchers, Freud and Maslow, have greatly shaped this area. Sigmund Freud believed that psychological forces that shape human behavior are unconscious. In other words, people do not fully understand what motivates them.

This has significant implications for marketing. Freud’s theory indicates that when making decisions about logos, packaging, and advertisements, consideration needs to be given to the less conscious elements of marketing such as the shape, size, weight, material, color, and even product placement in a store. For example, if Lucky Charms cereal is considering redoing its packaging, the company needs to consider how consumers might respond if its cereal was no longer in a tall, red, rectangular box with gold lettering.

  • What does the box represent to consumers?
  • Does it represent quality? Security (in that the box protects the cereal from being crushed)?
  • How would consumers react to no box? To a box that was a different shape, like a triangle or a square?
  • What about color choices? Certain meanings are associated with colors that go beyond being descriptive.

Individuals make connections with these aspects of a product in an unconscious way, so marketing professionals must consider what those colors and shapes may mean to a consumer and choose carefully, especially when changing an established brand or moving into a new cultural market.

To explain human motivations, Abraham Maslow developed Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He argued that this hierarchy demonstrated why people were driven to fulfill certain needs at certain times. For example, if someone’s need for safety were not fulfilled, his or her purchases would not be based on meeting the need for esteem. For marketers, this means that they need to understand where in the hierarchy the product falls and then develop appropriate messaging and market targeting. Another example is that if an individual is concerned about where he or she is going to sleep next week, he or she is not as likely to be concerned with what movie is leading sales at the box office or the latest news on interest rates.

The second component of consumer behavior is perception. There are a few ways that perceptions can be categorized. The first, selective attention, comes into play because humans cannot internalize and react to all of the messages that they are bombarded with every day. A scan of the internet indicates that daily exposure to ads can range from as few as around 200 to as high as 30,000. Consequently, marketers need to identify ways to break through the clutter. There is no one right answer here, and success requires the right mix of channel, message, and offering (product or service).

Selective distortion comes into play as consumers view products through the lens of the preconceptions they already have about a product category, brand, or issue. For example, when some people see a cat, they think it is cute or soft. It may remind them of their childhood or give them a sense of companionship. For others, that same image of a cat may cause them to feel anxious because cats cause a bad allergic reaction, or maybe they were scratched or bitten when they were younger. Marketers need to try to identify and compensate for preconceptions. Consider the messaging BP (British Petroleum) used after the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. BP recognized that the preconception about the company and the work it was doing (offshore drilling) was negative and sought to offset that through a marketing campaign. The article BP Oil Spill Advertisements Since the Deepwater Horizon Disaster provides an overview and examples of the ads BP has run since the spill to try to repair its reputation.

Selective retention is another perception-based component that may reward companies with consumer loyalty. This theory outlines how people remember the good aspects or elements of a company or product that they like or are loyal to and how they disregard the good features of competitors. For example, someone highly loyal to the Apple brand may be well aware that Samsung is rapidly gaining in the cell phone market; however, selection retention maintains their connection and loyalty to Apple, and information in a Samsung advertisement would not be retained.

There is a specific buying process for consumers and businesses outlined in the text. The video The Consumer Buying Process provides additional details about that process and provides an example of how the pet supply store would use that process.

Now, take a minute to review this week’s glossary.

*In your responses to classmates, compare segments and draw similarities and differences between the marketing strategies.

Classmate #1 to Respond:

I went with a city in the suburb of St. Louis that I thought would be the best for marketing, Chesterfield, 63017. I live in a small college town with students who mainly live in dorms, and most of the townsfolk here typically by cheap, so I do not think marketing here would be best. When looking at the results on (2020), the results are: (08) Gray Power – Wealthy Mature w/o Kids, (01) Upper Crust – Wealthy Mature w/o Kids, (03) Movers & Shaker – Wealthy Older Mostly w/o Kids, (20) Empty Nests – Upper Midscale Mature w/o Kids, (22) Middleburg Managers – Upper Younger Family Mix. Most of the individuals in this city appear to be financially stable, mature, and viable candidates to be marketed to for a new higher priced pet food.

The population of Chesterfield, Mo is 47,538 and the median income is $106,250. Almost 83% of the demographics is white, 11% Asian, and 4% African American. The poverty level in Chesterfield is low at 4.7%. Age groups are 21.4% for persons under 18, 44.8% for persons between the age of 19-64, and 23.8% for persons 65 and over. 98.2% of the population in Chesterfield are at least high school graduates, with 67% having a bachelor’s degree. In addition, over 91% of the population have and use internet, making social media and internet advertisements viable (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

When looking at strategies that marketers should use for Chesterfield when promoting the pet food Be Natural, social media and internet advertisements is a must. Advertisements can be used to show individuals of all age groups and ethnicities with their healthy pets, to ensure targeting of all demographics. As stated above, most of the populace is in a wealthier bracket, so the extra cost of the product will not deter customers as much. With a lot of the individuals in Chesterfield being middle aged and older, they will want their pets around as long as possible, since most of them are living without kids. Furthermore, the population is educated and will have a good understanding of the benefits of natural and healthy pet food products. With Be Natural only being sold online and Flagship stores, having a high internet use is good for selling products online. With an Amazon facility not far away, same day delivery will be available. Chesterfield is a part of St. Louis County, so the reach on advertisements will be to an additional 950,000 individuals if advertised via local television networks and radio (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019). Overall, I think Chesterfield would be a great city to start in to test and promote the pet food Be Natural.

Thanks everyone and have a great rest of your week!


Claritas. (2020). Prizm Premier. Claritas Pop-Facts Demographics 2020. Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Quick Facts: Chesterfield city, Missouri. Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Quick Facts: St. Louis County, Missouri. Retrieved from

Classmate #2 to Respond:

I searched zip code 53085 which is Sheboygan Falls Wisconsin, where I currently reside. We are located about 50 miles north of Milwaukee and 50 miles south of Green Bay, with a population of just under 8,000. I used as my research tool and learned a lot about the make up of my own city, the results were a bit surprising I would have to say.

The PRIZM premier states that around 60% of our population ranges between the ages of 45 and older, in an average household of only 2 people, with the majority falling in the income range of $50K – $75K. Younger families, or couples just starting out, enter the demographics next in line. About 30% of our population fall within the age scale of 25 – 35 years of age. The majority are working, middle class and are focused on building a better life for themselves and their growing families.

This area will be hard to focus on one main type of advertising to attract buyers to our pet food. The older households will likely have a pet but will be less tech savvy than the younger families in the area. The older households will more than likely be loyal to their hometown shops and markets, so local advertising in local newspapers or billboards would be best to target this group. However, the younger families that are just starting out will be tech savvy and shop more using online options. This group will likely have small children, which in turn will bring in a family pet of some sort. These households will likely be best targeted using social media advertising or getting our pet food in with a big online retailer like Amazon. The price of our pet food may be of some concern for the income ranges within my area, however, the focus on using local, all natural ingredients, will definitely be a big seller with both of the household I mentioned above.


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