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1. What is Plato’s Allegory of the Cave supposed to demonstrate?
How does it relate to his Theory of the Forms? Contrast Plato’s metaphysics
with Aristotle’s views. What is substance, according to Aristotle and how does
he argue that Plato’s view on the ultimate nature of reality is problematic?
Which of the two philosophers has a more convincing argument and why?

2. Think of all the philosophers we have discussed so far
this semester and how they have grappled with the question of ‘what makes up
our reality?’ Discuss at a minimum each of the following: one Pre-Socratic
answer to this question, Plato’s theory, Descartes’ argument, and Spinoza’s ideas.
Of all these attempts to determine what substance underlies all of reality,
which argument is strongest? Why?

3. What is the mind? How best should we understand it? Give
the following arguments: that the mind is a non-physical thing like a ‘soul’
that is distinct from the body (Descartes), that the mind is just material in
motion (Hobbes), that the mind is identical to the brain (Smart), that the mind
cannot be fully explained by the physical world (Nagel and Jackson). After you
have given each of these arguments, discuss their strengths and weaknesses.
Which theory best explains the mind and why? Defend your choice.

All I need is in each of them answer the questions in each of them in short essay! like I will have three essays?

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